W2_ABM_Follow up Tuckman Survey on SPJ offshore Construction Team

  1. Problem Definition

The Offshore Construction team for McConnell Dowell / SYS Joint venture (SPJ) have been actively working together for the past 8-9 months. Further challenges are now expected with larger and more complex work fronts commencing. We now wish to determine the following;

  1. The groups maturity to further understand its ability to deal with continued adversity and;
  2. leadership skills and styles which the group may benefit from as it enters this next phase of the project.

2. Development of feasible alternatives

As commented in the Blog for Week 1, according to Professor Bruce Tuckman in 1970, there are 4 stages for teamwork development :

  1. Forming
  2. Storming
  3. Norming
  4. Performing

Depending on the groups maturity levels, available alternatives with respect to continued management style may include;

  • Retain a high level of daily interaction to remain relevant to the team
  • Closely follow performance of the team and make decisions for the group to follow, providing specific daily targets and instructions.
  • Provide more general targets and milestones to the team allowing members to develop their own interim targets and pathways.
  • Delegate and oversee group activity from from a high level perspective and act as a guide and motivator as director and instructor.

3. Development of the Outcome for Alternative
As per Week 1 exercise with Emerald team the assessment of the SPJ offshore construction team will be performed through the administration of 32 question survey containing statements about teamwork. Each team Member scores each of the 32 questions using a scale of 1-5 (Almost never to Almost always) to indicate how often their team displays each indicated behavior.

In this survey however, respondents were requested to not record their names or identifies on answer sheets and submit together in 1 lot to assist with the retention of anonymity and therefore the integrity of results.

4. Selection Criteria

Survey results of SPJ Offshore Construction team are as follows;

5. Analysis and Comparison of the Alternative

From the above results, the team is now clearly operating in the Performing phase which is characterized by the following traits;

In this final stage the team becomes more strategically aware, they know what they are doing and why.  With a shared vision they are able to stand on their own feet with little interference or direction from the leader.  The focus becomes one of over-achieving goals, challenging and continuously improving their own working practices.  Disagreements are handled internally with the team members looking after each other as well as the task.

6. Selection of the Preferred Alternative

On reflection of these results, team members are now operating with minimal interference from senior management and more autonomy. Processes and procedures are developed for new work scopes however established work fronts are now observed to “run themselves”

The teams maturity levels (Performing)and current operation style being observed is therefore supported by the results above and can be considered appropriate for a group which has been established for the past 9 months and who have worked through a degree of adversity together.

With respect to actions by its leader and their task to keep the group motivated and focused on the remaining activities. The following actions are to be taken from the alternatives;

  • Provide more general targets and milestones to the team allowing members to develop their own interim targets and pathways.
  • Delegate and oversee group activity from from a high level perspective and act as a guide and motivator as director and instructor.

7. Performance Monitoring and the Post Evaluation of Result

Additionally, further actions to be taken to those nominated above, the leader may consider the following;

  • Keep close to the team to assist the team in the event of personnel or organisational change.
  • Encourage Team members to deepen their knowledge and skills, including working to continuously improving team development.
  • Accomplishments in team process or progress are celebrated.


  1. Judith Stein -Using the stages of Team Development                       Retrieved from  (hhttp://hrweb.mit.edu/learning-development/learning-topics/teams/articles/stages-development)
  2. Scoring the The Tuckman Team Maturity Questionnaire Electronically. retrieved from (http://www.phf.org/resourcestools/Documents/Electronic_Tuckman.pdf)
  3. Alan Chapman (2013) – Tuckman forming, storming performing model –  Retrieved from (http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm)
  4. Stage of team development – the Tuckman Model                           Retrieved from (http://tomorrowsconsultant.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Stage-of-team-devel)

W2_UDS_Choosing Fuel Terminal Location Using Additive Weighting Technique in Multi-Attribute Decision Making

  1. Problem Evaluation

Location of the new Fuel Terminal is one critical factor that determines operational success. Especially in build new fuel terminal, we must consider at least two aspects such as land aspect and sea aspect. The fact is very hard to find the location that has both aspects perfectly. But if we get the best one it has already bought or developed, so we have to choose the optimum location.

  1. Development of feasible alternatives

Choosing the Optimum location is decision making strategy. There are some theories that can help us to find the optimum one, but in this case we use “Additive Weighting Technique” from Compensatory Approach in Multi-Attribute Decision Making. With this technique we can find the best (Optimum) location based on calculation between weighted / rank and scoring of the criteria.

  1. Development the outcome for each alternative

The find the best location by using Additive Weighting Technique, First we have to do is select the criteria of land and sea aspect. Second, we make a weighting of the criteria. Weighting criteria may come from proportional rank of the criteria or expert judgment. Third, we give a number (Likert scale 1-3) in every criteria and time it with the weighting of every criteria. So we can choose the location with the highest score.

  1. Selection of criteria

Summary result of the weighting criteria each alternative as follow :

Table 1. Weighting Land Aspect Criteria

Table 2. Weighting Sea Aspect Criteria

Base on sum result of Table 1 and Table 2, Patra Dok Dumai location gets the highest score.

  1. Analysis and comparison of the alternative

Additive weighting calculation show Patra Dok Dumai location gets higher score in sea aspect criteria but lower score in land aspect criteria. It indicate this location is not the best but the optimum alternative that we have.

  1. Alternative selection

Choose the optimum not the best alternative is not a bad decision. It could be happen as long as they pass minimum requirement of operational success and we already prepare all of the mitigation of the risk.

  1. Performance monitoring & Post Evaluation Result

Even we already have the chosen alternative base on operational aspect also we have to evaluate the alternative base on economic aspect. Maybe in economic view our alternative not feasible to run so must go back to beginning and do this iteration until we get feasible alternative both on operational and economic aspect.

  1. References
    1. Planning Planet. (2017). Multi-Attribute Decision Making. Retrieved from http://www.planningplanet.com/guild/gpccar/managing-change-the-owners-perspective Figures 8-14
    2. Sullivan, G. W., Wicks, M. E., & Koelling, C. P.(2014). Engineering economy 16th Edition. Chapter 14 – Decision Making Considering Multiattributes., pp.559-608.
    3. Norris, G. A., & Marshall, H. E. (1995). Multiattribute decision analysis method for evaluating buildings and building systems. National Institute of Standards and Technology.



W2_A_Using Multiattribute Decision Making with Compensation Model for Supply of Electricity Tanjung Uban

  1. Problem Definition

Tanjung Uban Oil and Gas Storage Facility at the moment is planning the replacement of power source, originally the source of electricity obtained from generator, the replacement plan is based on the efficiency.

  1. Develop the Feasible Alternative

There are 3 alternatives in the supply of electricity at oil and gas storage facilities in Tanjung Uban, among others:

  1. Using direct electricity produced by PLN (State Own Electricity Company).
  2. Using gas turbine with feed from gas flare utilization.
  3. Using power generator with diesel fuel

Multiattribute Decision Making with Compensation Model will be made to choose the electricity supply option in Tanjung Uban. 

  1. Development of The Outcome for Alternative

Comparative analysis is conducted for each proposed alternative to see the impact of cost, reliability, efficiency, and environment.

Below on Tabel-1 is the comparison for alternative :

Tabel-1 Data Alternative

Relative Rank Scale 1 – 3, 3 for the best/High, 2 for Medium, 1 for Low, represent on tabel-2.

Tabel-2 Quantitative for Tabel-1

For compensatory Model, first time we define nondimensional scalling, it shown on Tabel-3 :

Tabel-3 : Nondimensional Scaling

Next step we generate Nondimensional Data, it shown on Tabel-4

Tabel-4 Nondimensional data for Electricity Supply

to calculate using additive weight technique we should determine Ordinal Ranking for Attribute, it shown on Tabel-5, where the greater number is meant greater important

Tabel-5 : Ordinal Attribute Ranking

4. Selection Criteria

Alternative with highest dimensionless value will be selected

5. Analysis & Comparison of Alternative

Regarding to Tabel-4 and Tabel-5, now we can calculated additive weighting for Tanjung Uban Electricity Supply, it shown on Table-6

Table-6 Additive Weighting Tanjung Uban Electricity Supply Selection

6. Analysis & Comparison of Alternative

Regarding to tabel-4 and tabel-6, the highest value of electricity supply by using electricity supplied by Gas Turbine or prefered to select, the result is on tabel-4 with 3 and tabel-6 with 0.67.

7. Performance Monitoring and The Post Evaluation of Result

Other attributes can be considered in sharpen the decision results, need to know Gas Turbine efficiency and other opportunity in advance technology of gas turbine.


  1. Sullivan, G. W., Wicks, M. E., &Koelling, C. P.(2014). Engineering economy 16th Edition. Chapter 14 – Decision Making Considering Multiattributes., pp.559-608.
  2. W11_AL_Platform Decommissioning(2014, May). Retrieved from : https://kristalaace2014.wordpress.com/2014/05/06/w11_al_platform-decommissioning/#more-1340
  3. W3_HI_Decision Making Considering MultiAttributes (2015, March). Retrived from : https://garudaaace2015.wordpress.com/2015/03/10/w3_hi_decision-making-considering-multi-attributes/










W2_AI_Workloading Histogram

  1. Problem Definition

Formed in face to face classroom (24-28 July 2017), Emerald AACE 2017 team will face the distance learning mode since then. In this phase, the daily work and a lot of tasks must be executed at the same time. To achieve optimal productivity and minimize stress, the workload must be distributed effectively. Susanne Madsen defines 6 tips to manage a demanding workload:

  1. Ask for help
  2. Prioritize important over urgent
  3. Delegate
  4. Plan collaboratively
  5. Use the right tool
  6. Share your concerns

These tips can be applied for control the workload of team project and officer also. However some tools must be performed to monitor forecast and balance the distribution of workload, one of them is workload histogram.

  1. Identify the Possible Alternative

Workloading histogram is some tools to define forecast workload base on activity, resources and target date. The histogram can showed team member peak and low period. Therefore before the project being late, it could help the Project Manager to take action to sufficient the resources needed and maintain workload team members.

  1. Development of The Outcome for Alternative

First of all, the activity and target must be defined.

Emerald AACE 2017 project plan will be used for basic calculation of workloading histogram, as follow:

Table 1. Emerald AACE 2017 Activity

Then schedule and time allocation based on each activity would be determined, as follow:

Table 2. Emerald AACE 2017 Schedule

  1. Selection Criteria

The Workloading histogram based on Emerald AACE 2017 team schedule, as follow:

Picture 1. Workloading histogram Emerald AACE 2017

  1. Analysis & Comparison of Alternative

To identify additional work hour for each member, this histogram only consider 6 (six) tasks that should be completed during after office hour (exclude classroom session).

Refer to Pic.1 above, it showed each member required 10 hours per week to finish all the tasks on time. In order to fulfill all the works, so our baseline hour (average) per person as follows:

Table 3. Time Frame per Week

With the workload histogram showed, as follow:

Picture 2. Workloading histogram Emerald AACE 2017 (excl. classroom)

  1. Selection of the Preferred Alternative

Refer to pic.2 above, it shows that :

  • The peak time will be at W23
  • To reduce the workload (W23), increase the productivity on another week (W14-W17), reducing scope or add man power.
  • Blog, Cheat sheet, and problem solving will be executed earlier to decreased the peak time
  1. Performance Monitoring and The Post Evaluation of Result

Workloading histogram shall be monitor in weekly basis, it will help Project Manager to maintain and monitor team member workload. In parallel, implementing this tools will help team member to manage the workload effectively, increase the productivity and raise the team opportunities to achieve goal together.


  1. Madsen, Susanne (2015). 6 Tips to Manage a Demanding Workload.

Retrieved from https://www.liquidplanner.com/blog/6-tips-to-manage-a-demanding-workload/

  1. Fahmi, A. (2013). W2_AFS_Workloading Histogram.

Retrieved from https://simatupangaace2014.wordpress.com/2013/09/12/w2_afs_-workloading-histogram/#more-423


W2_MFO_Benchmarking Study of Estimating Process

  1. Problem Definition

Accuracy in project estimating process becomes one of the issues in our project implementation, because sometimes ending over-budgeted or extremely under-budgeted.

  1. Identify the Feasible Alternative

Accuracy verification has been done through well established technical methods and procedures. One of them is illustrated in the figure below and that method is adapted from GAO’s “Best Practices in Capital Budgeting”. This process is mainly four stages, initiation and research, assessment, analysis and presentation. I will try to benchmarked against this standard process to extract recommendations to improve further on existing procedures.

Figure 1. GAO Cost Estimating Process

  1. Development of the Outcome for Alternative

Parameters which are trying to be analysis base on The Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process from GAO’s “Best Practices in Capital Budgeting”. I will compare our estimating process with the twelve steps and I will try to find the gap between GAO and estimating process. Each of the 12 steps is important for ensuring that high-quality cost estimates are developed and delivered in time to support important decisions


Table 1: The Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process

  1. Selection Criteria

A resume after we compare our estimating process with The Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process from GAO’s “Best Practices in Capital Budgeting” as shown as below table.

Table 2. The comparison between our estimating process with The Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process

The results show that there are some gaps in our estimation process. There are some processes that we don’t do which can affect the accuracy in our estimation process.

  1. Analysis and Comparison of the Alternative

Result in Table 2 shows that the there are some gaps in our estimation process. There are some processes that still not did yet which can affect the accuracy in our estimation process. The summary of the gap obtained can be seen in the table 3. Only Step 1 which already appropriate with The Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process, the other step has not been done in part or in whole and needs to be improved to make our estimation process better.

Table 3. Summary of the gap obtained

  1. Selection of the Preferred Alternative

Base on table 3 there are many steps that must be improved in our estimation process, but one of the most important to improve and very influential to the accuracy of the estimation process is in the assessment step consisting of step 3 to 7, especially in terms of making WBS. So far, we have never made WBS before making an estimate, causing our estimates to be inaccurate. So, the first step to improved our estimating process can be start with making WBS.

  1. Performance Monitoring and the Post Evaluation of Result

Monitoring should be conducted during estimating process to ensure that all requirements are met. We can start with develop Cost estimating checklist.



  1. GAO (March 2009). GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide, A Reliable Process for Developing Credible Cost Estimates pages 8-11. Retrieved on 12th July 2014 from http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d093sp.pdf
  2. Musallam Al-Awaid (Sept, 2014), Oman Oil and Gas Cost Estimating vs the GAO’s Best Practices in Capital Budgeting – a Benchmarking Study, Retrieved on 4th Aug 2017 from http://pmworldjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/pmwj26-sep2014-Al-Awaid-Oman-oil-and-gas-cost-estimating-FeaturedPaper2.pdf

W2_OAN_Investing vs Renting Studies

  1. Problem Definition

Reliability of equipment in oil and gas industry has been main concern in our company, storage tank to be specific. As main equipment it needs special attention, since we are taking care hydrocarbon product, which is highly flammable. Our goals are to assess reliability of storage tank such as corrosion rate and remaining plate thickness. To achieve our goals, it is important to determine the most economical method to asses reliability or conduct inspection of storage tank.

  1. Development of feasible alternatives

To asses corrosion rate and remaining plate thickness alternatives :

  1. Investing an Ultrasonic Thickness (UT) Crawler as inspection tools
  2. Hire third party specialize on storage tank inspection

It is important to choose which most efficient way to conduct inspection, especially with numerous number of storage tank.

  1. Possible Solution / Alternative

Calculation of investment, maintenance cost, operating cost and rent cost based on inquiry from UT Crawler Vendor and Third Party specialize in this field.

  1. Selection of Criteria

Summary result of investing and renting data :

Table 1: Investing vs Renting from Third Party

As shown on the table 1, if we rent from 3rd party company we dont have to deal with maintenance cost, while if we purchase we must consider maintenance cost, operating cost beside investment cost.

  1. Analysis and Comparison of the Alternatives

Total number of inspection based on our work plan and KPI. In 1 month we must performed at least 2 storage tank inspection, therefore in 1 year we have target at least 24 storage tank to be inspected. We assume that our equipment have 5 years life expectancy. This will be our baseline for calculation.

Table 2: Useful life and Total Number of Inspection in 1 year

Calculation summary :

Table 3 : Summary total cost inspection 24 storage tank/year for 5 years inspection

  1. Selection and Preferred Alternatives

Table 3 show that total cost of invest UT Crawler is lower thant rent from 3rd party. The biggest difference in operational cost, this cost reduction more than balance the extra $53.383 in investment. In short run, one year or less, we can consider outsourced inspection activity. But for this case, long term inspection with numerous number of tank, investment on UT crawler will be economically feasible.

  1. Performance Monitoring and the Post Evaluation of Result

Periodic monitoring and maintenance is needed to conduct, for company to make sure equipment in the best condition. Review shall be conducted to reveal uncertainty parameter such as overhead and cost of run.



  1. Sullivan, William G., Wicks, Elin M. & Koelling, C. Patrick. (2014). Engineering Economy 16th edition page 71-73, England: Pearson Education Limited.
  2. W2_AL_Sleeping Field Development (2013, March).
    Retrieved from https://kristalaace2014.wordpress.com/2014/03/03/w2_al_sleeping-field-development/#more-269
  3. W02.1_SJP_Bamboo Scaffolding ((2017, June)
    Retrieved from https://js-pag-cert-2017.com/w02-1_sjp_bamboo-scaffolding/