- Problem Evaluation
I work at Central Supply & Distribution Division in My Company. This division main responsibility is to distribute fuel all around Indonesia. This division has four departments that are Fuel Product Quality & Quantity, Fuel Terminal Infrastructure, Operation Supply Chain, and Performance & Evaluation.
Figure 1. Organization Structure
This division has a very high mutation frequency, in other words employee only stay for 1 up to 2 years in this division. Beside mutation frequency, employee educational background variation and employee number also influence team stage. This time, I want to determine leadership skills and styles for My Division and Performance & Evaluation (P&E) Department by knowing the stage of them. Appropriate leadership skills and styles will give us more advantage to achieve our goal, distribute fuel all around Indonesia with operational & service excellent.
- Development of feasible alternatives
To fine appropriate leadership style there are some theory has been published, but the best one is Tuckman’s model. This model has five stages of team development and behavior that are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. This model also explains how Team develops maturity and ability, relationships establish, and the leader changes leadership style. Beginning with a directing style, moving through coaching, then participating, finishing delegating and almost detached.
Figure 2. Team Development and Behavior Stage
- Development the outcome for each alternative
To know the current My Division and Department stage, sample employee fill Tuckman scoring template two times, first as a Division team member and the second as a P&E Department team member.
Table 1. Scoring template result as S&D Division team member
Table 2. Scoring template result as P&E Department team member
- Selection of criteria
Based on the individual’s scoring template result above, PERT analysis was performed to identify team behavior at P90 because most of these team member already join over long time (1-2 years).
- Analysis and comparison of the alternative
Summary result of the survey data using Delphi technique with P90 as follow:
Table 3. P.90 Delphi technique result for S&D Division Team Member
Table 4. P.90 Delphi technique result P&E Department Team Member
Based on Delphi technique calculation in Table 3 and 4, we can conclude S&D Division team is in Norming stage but in Department team is in Performing (indicated by the rank).
- Alternative selection
For S&D Division is in norming stage, team members often experience:
- Agreement and consensus largely forms among the team;
- Roles and responsibilities are clear and accepted;
- Big decisions are made by group agreement;
- Smaller decisions may be delegated to individuals or small teams within group.
Hints for Vice President as team leaders:
- Step back and help team members take responsibility for progress towards the goal;
- This is a good time to arrange a team-building event.
Style of leadership this stage is “TEAM BUILDING” mode where some leadership is to make team responsible for reaching the goal.
For P&E Department is in performing stage, team members often experience:
- The team is more strategically aware;
- the team knows clearly why it is doing what it is doing;
- The team has a shared vision and is able to stand on its own feet with no interference or participation from the leader;
- There is a focus on over-achieving goals
Hints for Manager as team leaders:
- Delegate tasks and projects as far as you can;
- Once the team is achieving well, you should aim to have as light a touch as possible;
Style of leadership this stage is “DELEGATING” mode where some leadership is shared by the team.
The differences stage between Division and Department are most influenced by number of team member and frequency of working together (closeness team member). It is important for vice president to more flexible in changing his leadership style when He gives assignment to employee. Because it would be different atmosphere of Employee as Division team member or as Department team member.
- Performance monitoring & Post Evaluation Result
Tuckman model assessment should conduct periodically to capture team stage changing and give a clue to team leader to select appropriate style of leadership to improve coordination and productivity of the team. The Leader must have strategies to move the team through to the next stage in the team formation process
- (2017). Tuckman Forming Storming Norming Performing Model. Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm
- (2017). Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing – Understanding the Stages of Team Formation. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_86.htm
- Hendarto, Tommy (2017). W4_TH_Tuckman Survey on Non Process Engineer Team |EMERALD AACE 2017. Retrieved from http://emeraldaace2017.com/2017/08/24/w4_th_tuckman-survey-on-non-process-engineer-team/
- Michell, Tony (2017). W2_ABM_Folow Up Tuckman|EMERALD AACE 2017. Retrieved from http://emeraldaace2017.com/2017/08/08/w2_abm_follow-up-tuckman-survey-on-spj-offshore-construction-team/
- Saputra, Dhanu (2017). W1_Dhanu_Tuckman Analysis Assessment |EMERALD AACE 2017. Retrieved from http://emeraldaace2017.com/2017/08/01/w1_dhanu_tuckman-analysis-assessment/