W5_TH_ Standardized WBS Structures for Gas Station Project-Part 2

  1. Problem Definition

One of the leading causes of claims and disputes on a project comes because of poor or incomplete scope definition; leading to scope changes and variations[1]. Standardized WBS structures can help the project team to deliver project objective with OTOBOS (On Time, On Budget and On Schedule). What kind of standardized WBS can be adapted for Gas Station (GS) Project?

  1. Develop the Feasible Alternative

There are two best practice of standardized WBS[1]:

  • NORSOK Standard Z-014: Standard Cost Coding System (SCSS) rev 1, Oct 2002. NORSOK was developed on 1989 because the Norwegian government was unhappy with all their production sharing contractors reporting costs using different coding structures.
  • OmniClass: The concept for OmniClass is derived from internationally-accepted standards that have been developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 12006-2) and the International Construction Information Society (ICIS) subcommittees and workgroups from the early-1990s to the present.

The author will compare both of them and choose one that most suitable for GS Project.

  1. Develop of the Outcome for Alternative

Two standardized WBS will be compare using the Lexicography Non-Compensatory Models.

  1. Selection Criteria

Two standardized WBS will be evaluated considering the following attributes:

  • Suitable for Onshore/Offshore
  • Managing Project Interface
  • No of Dimensions
  • Level of Work Package Details
  • Monitoring the Project
  • Zone Breakdown Structure
  1. Analysis & Comparison of Alternative

OmniClass consists of 15 hierarchical tables, each of which represents a different facet of construction information or entries on it can be combined with entries on other tables to classify more complex subjects[2].

Fig 1. Inter-related OmniClass[2]

Fig 2. OmniClass Table 21 (Elements) [3]

NORSOK standard describes a system for coding of cost and weight estimates and as-built/experience data. It comprises 3 sets of complementary sub-coding systems named:

  • PBS (Physical Breakdown Structure)
  • SAB (Standard Activity Breakdown)
  • COR (Code Of Resources)

Fig 3. Norsok SAB (Standard Activity Breakdown) Elements[4]

The WBS comparison of the attributes is expressed in Table 1 below:

Table 1. Comparison of WBS attributes

Attributes in table 1 were ranked in order of importance by applying paired comparison between each attribute combination. Results are shown as follows:

Table 2. Ordinal Ranking of WBS attributes


Table 3. Application of Lexicography

6. Selection of the Preferred Alternatives

Considering the above ranking results, the OmniClass WBS was found the optimum selection, since it has the highest score. The OmniClass is suited for the onshore projects and has the highest numbers of dimensions. Therefore, it could be adapted as a standardized WBS to enhance the project performance and cost control GS projects. The OmniClass as a multidimensional WBS is better defined and zoning the scope with in-depth level of details and ease/define the possible interface and facilitate monitoring the project comparing to the others. These advantages will contribute significantly in reducing the number of change orders as it will reduce the possible scope omissions or errors.

7. Performance Monitoring and The Post Evaluation Result

The next step will be to build up WBS for the Gas Station Project using top three elements of OmniClass, to prove whether the conclusion above is correct, and start evaluating the impact during phases of the project.



  1. Planning Planet (2017). Creating Work Breakdown Structure. Retrieved from http://www.planningplanet.com/guild/gpccar/creating-work-breakdown-structure
  2. Ardi, Satria. (2014). W14_SAS_Developing|Soroako AACE 2014. Retrieved from https://soroakoaace2014.wordpress.com/2014/12/12/w14_sas_developing-standardize-omniclass-3d-wbs-for-electric-furnace-rebuild-project/
  3. OmniClass (2017), OmniClass Table 21 – Elements (includes design elements). Retrieved from www.omniclass.org/tables/OmniClass_21_2012-05-16.zip
  4. Norsok Standard Z-014 (2017), Norsok Standard Z-014. Retrieved from http://www.standard.no/pagefiles/951/z-014.pdf
  5. Ardi, Satria. (2014). W12_SAS_Developing|Soroako AACE 2014. Retrieved from https://soroakoaace2014.wordpress.com/2014/11/28/w12_sas_developing-3d-wbs-for-electric-furnace-rebuild-project/
  6. El Rashid, M. (2016). The Influence of Non-Standard Work Breakdown Structure on Change Orders and Cost Estimation for Sudan Oil and Gas Projects, PM Word Journal Vol. V. Retrieved from http://pmworldlibrary.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/pmwj53-Dec2016-ElRashid-non-standard-work-breakdown-structure-sudan-featured-paper.pdf

W5.1_MFO_ OmniClass and 3D WBS on Gas Metering System Installation

1.      Problem Recognition, Definition and Evaluation

A company will install Ultrasonic Gas Metering Station for our project. Is the use of OmniClass 3D WBS can be applied to this project?

2.      Development of the Feasible Alternatives

OmniClass is a means of organizing and retrieving information specifically designed for the construction industry. It consists of 15 hierarchical tables, each of which represents a different facet of construction information or entries on it can be combined with entries on other tables to classify more complex subjects. (OmniClass, 2014)

3D WBS is based on three main dimensions: Zones Breakdown Structure (ZBS), Products Breakdown Structure (PBS) and Activity Breakdown Structure (ABS).

Fig 1. 3D WBS

3.      Development of the Outcomes for Each Alternative

The 15 inter-related OmniClass tables are: (OmniClass, 2014)

  1. Table 11    : Construction Entities by Function
  2. Table 12    : Construction Entities by Form
  3. Table 13    : Spaces by Function
  4. Table 14    : Spaces by Form
  5. Table 21    : Elements (includes Designed Elements)
  6. Table 22    : Work Results
  7. Table 23    : Products
  8. Table 31    : Phases
  9. Table 32    : Services
  10. Table 33    : Disciplines
  11. Table 34    : Organizational Roles
  12. Table 35    : Tools
  13. Table 36    : Information
  14. Table 41    : Materials
  15. Table 49    : Properties

The tables above can be described in terms of the 3D WBS models as follows:

Fig 2. 3D WBS Cubes and Omniclass Table

4.      Selection of a Criterion

Characteristics of the WBS:

  1. WBS defines output
  2. WBS is hierarchical
  3. One WBS level’s output is an input to the next higher level.

5.      Analysis and Comparison of the Alternatives

By using Omniclass tables as reference, 3D WBS for the project is as follow:

    1. Zone Breakdown Structure (ZBS)
    2. Product Breakdown Structure (PBS)

3. Activity Breakdown Structure (ABS)

Based on the above, it appears that OmniClass and 3D WBS are compatible.

6.      Selection of the Preferred Alternative

OmniClass tables give a more detailed WBS and can be applied to this gas metering system installation project.

7.      Performance Monitoring and Post Evaluation of Results

Monitoring and supervision should be conducted strictly during project to keep the project inline with the WBS.


  1. Humpreys, G. C. (2011). Project Management Using Earned Value (2nd ed.). Humpreys & Associates, Inc.
  2. W16_GW_OmniClass and 3D WBS on Pipeline Installation. (2014, June 15). Retrieved from Kristal AACE 2014 : https://kristalaace2014.wordpress.com/2014/06/15/w16_gw_omniclass-and-3d-wbs-on-pipeline-installation/
  3. OmniClass. (2017). Retrieved from OmniClass: http://www.omniclass.org/
  4. Syafri, F. (2013, October 8). Managing Small Project: Omniclass 3D WBS. Retrieved from Simatupang AACE 2014: http://simatupangaace2014.wordpress.com/2013/10/08/w6_afs_-managing-small-project-omniclass-3d-wbs-2/
  1. Moine J-Y. 2013.3D Work Breakdown Structure Method, PM Word Journal Vol. II, Issue IV–April 2013